Original Data


I designed a novel survey to measure the ethical core positions of individuals, along with their attitudes toward democracy. I also designed six different conjoint experiments based on six different ethical issues to estimate whether electorates punish politicians based on their positions vis-à-vis the position of their society.

I fielded the survey and the experiments in the USA and Canada and collected new data from more than 3600 Americans in December 2020 and 2200 Canadians in June 2021—under the guidance of my supervisor, Professor Peter Loewen.

Using the novel surveys and six conjoint experiments, my dissertation aims to examine how ethical position of voters and politicians matter in a democracy.